This Week in History
by Dianne Hermann
“The most effective way to destroy people is to
deny and obliterate their own understanding of their history.”
Week of Feb. 19-25, 2018
1807 – Vice President Aaron Burr, arrested in Alabama for treason, is later found innocent.
1856 – Hamilton Smith of New London, Connecticut, patents the tintype camera. Smith was a scientist, photography, and astronomer.
1859 – Dan Sickles is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity. It is the first time this defense is successfully used.
1878 – Thomas Alva Edison patents the gramophone (phonograph).
1881 – Kansas becomes the first state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
1913 – The first prize is inserted into a Cracker Jack box. The snack’s creator Louis Rueckheim gave the treat to a salesman who exclaim, “That’s a Cracker, Jack!” So Rueckheim trademarked the name in 1896.
1922 – Ed Wynn becomes the first talent to sign a contract as a radio entertainer.
1942 – President FDR orders the detention and internment of all west coast Japanese-Americans during World War II. Twelve detention centers in California and one in Oregon house more than 100,000 Japanese-Americans. In December of 1944, FDR announces the end of the detentions and the internees return home. By then, they had lost their homes, businesses, and possessions. President Ronald Reagan signed into law The Civil Liberties Act of 1988, providing an apology and redress to the internees still living, although nearly half of those who had been imprisoned died before the bill was signed.
1974 – The first American Music Award are held. Helen Reddy and Jim Croce won. Jim Croce died in a plane crash the previous September at age 30.
1984 – Twins Phil and Steve Mahre become the first brother combo to win Gold and Silver medals in the same event. They competed at the Sarajevo Olympics (Slalom skiing).
1986 – The U.S. Senate ratifies the United Nation’s Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 36 years after it is adopted by the UN.
1987 – An anti-smoking ad by the American Cancer Society, featuring Yul Brynner, airs for the first time on TV. It was filmed two years before, just months before Brynner died of lung cancer. Watch Yul Brynner’s plea:
2002 – NASA’s Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.
1792 – The U.S. postal service is created. Postage costs 6 cents to 12 cents depending on the distance.
1809 – The Supreme Court rules the federal government’s power is greater than any state.
1872 – The Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in New York City. It is the second largest art museum in the world, after the Lourve in Paris, France.
1937 – The first combination automobile/airplane is tested in Santa Monica, California. Designed by aero-engineer Waldo Dean Waterman, it claimed a top air speed of 120 mph and highway speed of 70 mph. Watch it drive and fly:
1943 – Phil Wrigley (the chewing gum mogul) and Branch Rickey (who signed up baseball’s Jackie Robinson) charter the All-American Girls Softball League. The 1992 movie “A League of Their Own” starring Tom Hanks and Geena Davis is a fictionalized account of the league’s history.
1962 – John Glenn, on board Friendship 7, is the first American to orbit the Earth. He served four terms as a U.S. Senator from Ohio before returning to space on the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1988. Glenn died in 2016 at age 95.
1971 – The National Emergency Center in Colorado erroneously orders all U.S. radio and TV stations to go off the air. The mistake wasn’t resolved for 30 minutes.
1992 – Ross Perot announces on the Larry King Show that he’ll run for President. He received 18.9% of the popular vote but no Electoral College votes. Perot is now 87 years old. Watch Perot with Larry:
2002 – Jim Shea, Jr. wins the gold medal in skeleton (sled) racing at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics, making him the 1st third-generation Olympian. His father and grandfather both won medals in the 1964 and 1932 Olympics respectively. Jim’s grandfather was killed in a car crash just one month before Jim won the gold medal. Watch Shea’s amazing run:
1885 – The Washington Monument is dedicated in Washington, DC. Construction takes place in two phases, 1848-1856 and 1876-1884. Lack of funds and the Civil War halted the building process. By the time construction resumed at the 150’ level the color within the marble and granite stone quarries had changed. That color change line is visible on the monument.
1918 – The last Carolina Parakeet dies in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo. The last known specimen in the wild was killed in 1904. The Carolina Parakeet was the only parakeet native to North America north of Mexico.
1947 – Edwin H. Land demonstrates the first instant developing camera he invented in New York City. He is the founder of the Polaroid Corporation in 1937. Land died in 1991 at age 81.
1965 – Malcolm X is assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam. He was 39 years old.
1988 – During a live TV broadcast, televangelist Jimmy Swaggart (then age 52) admits to visiting a prostitute. He then announced he would leave his ministry for an unspecified length of time. Swaggart was defrocked in April by the Assemblies of God and ordered to stay off TV for a year, but returned after only three months. Swaggart is now 82 years old and still on TV. Watch his TV apology with a report:
1784 – The first U.S. ship to trade with China, “Empress of China,” sets sails from New York.
1821 – Spain sells the east part of Florida to the United States for $5 million.
1878 – Frank Winfield Woolworth obtains credit from his former boss, William Moore, along with some savings, to buy merchandise and open the “Woolworth’s Great Five Cent Store” in Utica, New York, which failed in May of the same year.
1935 – Airplanes are no longer permitted to fly over the White House when a no-fly zone is created.
1980 – The U.S. Olympic ice hockey team upsets the USSR 4-3 in what instantly becomes known as the “Miracle on Ice.” The U.S. went on to win the Olympic gold medal in Lake Placid. Watch the miracle:
1995 – Steve Fossett completes the first air balloon flight over the Pacific Ocean. In 2002 Fossett was the first person to circumnavigate the Earth in a balloon. He disappeared during an airplane flight in 2007. His remains were found in 2008. He was 63 years old.
2010 – A copy of “Action Comics #1” featuring the introduction of Superman sells at auction for $1 million.
1813 – The first U.S. raw cotton-to-cloth mill is founded in Waltham, Massachusetts.
1836 – The Alamo is besieged for 13 days by the Mexican army under General Santa Anna. By March 6th the entire garrison was killed. The Alamo was built as the chapel of the Mission San Antonio de Valero in Texas.
1861 – President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, DC to take office because seven states have already seceded from the Union since the election. Noted private detective Allen Pinkerton uncovered an assassination plot and escorted Lincoln to Washington.
1904 – The U.S. acquires control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million. President Jimmy Carter returned control of the Canal to Panama in 1999.
1927 – President Coolidge creates the Federal Radio Commission (the predecessor to the FCC).
1945 – U.S. Marines raise the American flag on Iwo Jima. The famous photo became the model for the U.S. Marine Corps War Memorial erected at Arlington National Cemetery. Hershel “Woody” Williams, now age 94, is the last surviving Medal of Honor recipient from the Battle for Iwo Jima. Watch an interview with Woody:
1954 – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is the site of the first mass inoculation against polio using the vaccine developed by Jonas Salk. Salk died in 1995 at age 80.
1971 – Lieutenant William Calley confesses to the My Lai massacre in Viet Nam in April 1969 and implicates his commander Captain Ernest Medina. Medina was acquitted and Calley was sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labor. After numerous appeals Calley served only 31/2 years of house arrest. Calley is now 74 years old.
1980 – American Eric Heiden wins all five speed skating gold medals at the Lake Placid Olympics. Heiden is now 59 years old. Watch Heiden win all 5 medals:
1995 – The Dow Jones closes above 4,000 for the first time (4,003.33).
1998 – The Supreme Court lets stand Megan’s Law. Megan’s Law (named for 7-year-old Megan Kanka who was raped and murdered by a repeat sex offender) allows the information on registered sex offenders to be made public.
2008 – A U.S. Air Force B-2 Spirit (Stealth Bomber) crashes at Anderson Air Force Base in Guam. The crew survived but the aircraft was destroyed, making it the most expensive air crash in history (the aircraft alone cost $1.2 billion). The B-2 had a perfect safety record before the crash.
1803 – The Supreme Court makes its first ruling that a law is unconstitutional (Marbury v Madison). This decision maked the case for judicial review, cementing the Supreme Court as a separate but equal branch of government.
1868 – The first U.S. parade with floats, the Mardi Gras Parade, is held in Mobile, Alabama. Mobile was also the site of the oldest Mardi Gras celebration, dating back to 1703.
1868 – The House of Representatives votes 126 to 47 to impeach President Andrew Johnson. His impeachment trial began on March 13, but Johnson’s opponents failed to get the needed two-thirds majority to convict him. Bill Clinton was impeached in 1998, but was also not removed from office. The first attempted presidential impeachment attempt is John Tyler in 1843, which failed.
1903 – The U.S. signs an agreement acquiring a naval station at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
1942 – The U.S. stops shipments of all 12-gauge shotguns for sporting use for the wartime effort.
1981 – Jean Harris is convicted of murdering Scarsdale diet doctor Herman Tarnower. Harris served 12 years of her 15-year sentence. She died in 2012 at age 89.
1999 – The State of Arizona executes Karl LaGrand, a German national involved in an armed robbery, in spite of Germany’s legal action to save him.
2011 – The Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-133) is launched for the final time. The last Space Shuttle launch is the Atlantis (STS-135) in July 2011. Watch the launch including videos attached to the shuttle:
1751 – The first performing monkey is exhibited in America in New York City. Admission is 1 cent.
1793 – George Washington holds the first cabinet meeting at his home in Mt. Vernon, Virginia.
1836 – Samuel Colt patents the Colt Paterson, the first revolving barrel multi-shot firearm.
1862 – Congress forms the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Paper currency (greenbacks) was introduced by President Abraham Lincoln.
1933 – The USS Ranger is christened as the first genuine aircraft carrier. The captain of the USS Ranger from 1937 to 1939 was Senator John McCain’s grandfather.
1950 – “Your Show of Shows” with Sid Caesar and Imogene Coca premieres on NBC and airs until 1954. Writers included Mel Brooks, Neil Simon, and Woody Allen. Coca died in 2001 at age 92. Caesar died in 2014 at age 91. Watch a pantomime sketch with Sid and Imogene:
1964 – Cassius Clay, a 7-1 underdog, TKOs boxing champion Sonny Liston in the 7th round to win the world heavyweight championship. It was Liston’s second loss in 37 bouts. Liston died under suspicious circumstances in 1970 at age 38. Mohamed Ali (Clay) died in 2016 at age 74. Watch interviews and part of the fight:
1987 – The U.S. Supreme Court upholds Affirmative Action in a 6-3 decision with its only gender-based ruling in Johnson v. Transportation Agency.
1991 – The U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia is hit by a SCUD missile, killing 28 and wounding 89. Among the dead were three women, the first to be killed in the Persian Gulf War.
Image from Wikipedia.com